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SCI论文写作:材料类英文科技论文写作

SCI论文写作:材料类英文科技论文写作

随着中国科学技术和经济水平的不断发展,科技界国际交流越来越频繁。写出一篇文字精练、逻辑严谨、表达准确的高质量英文学术论文,是进行国际学术交流的基础。由于英语并非我们的母语,在撰写英文科技SCI论文写作中通常会出现各种各样的表达错误,如何提高科研工作者的英文科技论文写作能力,准确表达科学研究成果,对提高我国科学研究的国际学术影响力、增进国际交流尤为重要。以下是我们在审读与编辑材料类英文科技论文中积累的一些易错短句实例,结合自建的专业权威英文期刊论文语料库,指出其正确的表达方式,希望对编辑及作者有所帮助。

1 英文论文常见易错表达及修改

1.1 主语和谓语搭配不一致

主语和谓语搭配不一致是英文论文中常见的错误。英语名词分为可数名词和不可数名词,相应的,名词后面所接的谓语动词也有单复数形式。可数名词的单数和不可数名词做主语,谓语动词用单数;可数名词的复数做主语,谓语动词用复数。

错误:The structure disorderinduced by ion implantation is found, and irradiateddamage appear as large amount of dark zone only for high fluence ofimplantation.

上例中主语“irradiated damage”,是单数,谓语动词不能是“appear”,而应是“appears”。

正确:The structure disorderinduced by ion implantation is found, and irradiated damage appears as largeamount of dark zone only for high fluence of implantation.

如果名词前有修饰语,应注意区分以下情况。

1)名词前有every,each,much,little,no 修饰时,谓语动词用单数。

正确:Hundreds of chemicallyactive compounds and minerals reside within the earth’sformations, and every patch of rock andsoil is composed of its own particular mix.

正确:This signal fires anumber of detonators, and each detonator ignites a small charge of explosive.

正确:Because much of theradiation we encounter has relatively low energy, its effect on our bodies isbenign.

正确:Hence, there is little ambiguity in the literatureregarding the procedure adopted for calculating retention / sorption capacityas it is very much dependent on initial metal ion concentration used in aparticular study.

正确:Therefore, the electro polishingcurrent was reduced to 1.5 V for 3 s (5% H3PO4 solution)and no additional processing was necessary.

2)名词前有many,few,a few 修饰时,谓语动词用复数。

正确:ICP is usedprimarily for trace element analyses. The ICP-MS and ICP-AES are complementary,and many programs request bothanalyses.

正确:A few milligrams from this solutionenter a preparation step, which is usually ion-exchange, but sometimes justdilution.

正确:At the “critical” strain, relatively few grains become “active,” and those that do are able to growinto the surrounding matrix with minimal competition from

others.

3)no…and no…,every…and every…,each…and each…,连接名词做主语时,谓语动词用单数。

4)...as well as… 连接两个名词时做主语时,谓语动词取决于第一个名词的单复数。

正确:Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) ofX-rays, as well as electron microprobe analysis, indicates that the U(N,C)phase also contains some oxygen.

5)or,either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also…引导的主语,谓语动词的单复数取决于最靠近动词的名词的单复数,亦即“就近原则”。

正确:All solid MT-52 or 83 samples start with a dissolutionstep, either separately or as part of a multi-prep dissolution.

正确:In the DFT functionals either the generalizedgradientapproximations (GGA) or the localdensity approximations(LDA) are used (see, e.g., ref 333).

正确:At this cluster either edge- (E2) or corner-(C2) sharing sorption of uranyl is possible (see Figure16).

正确:Due to the complicateddetection technique, not only thechromatographic transport through the column but also the decay and detection of Sg nuclei was modeled with aMonte Carlo procedure.

6)both…and…连接2个名词做主语,谓语动词为复数。

正确:Both the free phosphonic acid as well asthe diethyl, dibutyl andbis-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphonate derivatized sorbents possess a high selectivityfor uranium(VI) with an optimum pH of 4.

7)用all 或most,half,some 等+of+名词做主语时,谓语动词取决于名词的单复数形式,如果为名词为可数名词单数或不可数名词复数,则谓语动词用单数;若名词为可数名词复数,则谓语动词用复数。

正确:Multivalent metalimpurities (most notably Fe and U) can interfere with accurate analyses, andspecial care must be used to ensure that allof the starting plutonium is in the trivalent state.

正确:Almost all of thesestudies apply the plane wave DFT method using PBC; only few313,319,321use the cluster ansatz.

正确:Back-reflection-LaueX-ray diffraction, which gives detailed information about the crystallographic qualityof grains, showed that most of the largegrains were polygonized; that is, they were composed of several subgrainsthat were slightly misaligned to each other.

正确:Typically, most of theprotein merely serves as a means to configure a small subset of amino acids intoa uniquely contoured region.

正确:Fluorescence lifetimeresults indicate that about half of thehydration sphere of 9 H2O/OH- ligands is removed in the course of surfacecomplexation.62,69,72,83

正确:Characterizationof the desorbed reaction phases indicate that less than half of the mixtures examined(M(H2) ) MgH2,Mg, Al, and CaH2) followthe thermodynamically expected reaction pathway, resulting in the formation ofmetal boride products (MgB2, AlB2,and CaB6,respectively).

正确:Hybridizations ofO(2p)-H(1s)-Pu(5f)-Pu(6d)are observed for the two dissociative adsorptions,implying that some of the Pu-5felectrons become further delocalized and participate in chemical bonding.

正确:As time passes some ofthe molecularlyadsorbed water changes to forms that are more difficult tovolatilize presumably by formation of additional hydroxyls, although thisreaction is slow.

SCI论文写作

1.2 “等”结构的表达

列举事物时的“等”用etc.表示,此时容易出现and的误用。如“a, b, c, and d, etc.”,and 和etc.是不能同时用的,去掉其中的and 就正确了。用et al.表示列举事物时的“等”也是错误的。

错误:Owing to highdielectric constant, low loss and leakage current, excellent ferroelectric andpyroelectric properties, barium strontium titanate (Ba1-xSrxTiO3,BST),a typical ferroelectric material with perovskite structure, is a promisingcandidate for a variety of electronic applications such as voltage-tunablecapacitors, microwave phase shifters, dynamic random access memories (DRAM),uncooled infrared sensors, tunable filters, energy storage devices, andmultilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC), etc.(and 和etc.是不能同时用的,去掉其中的and 就正确了。)

错误:Combined withadvantages of low density and low material cost, they are being activelyconsidered for high-temperature structural applications such as structuralmembers in aircraft, heating elements, nuclear reactorc omponents and et al 3-4.(将“and et al”改为“, etc.”就正确了)

有的作者使用and so on 来表示列举事物时的“等”,科技论文的写作强调清晰性与简洁性,建议使用etc.。

错误:Rotary motion is drivenby a motor connected with a reducer by using cone-shaped gears, belts, and soonetc. 16 (去掉其中的and so no 就正确了)列举人名时的“等”用et al.表示。在正文中引用他人的研究成果时,只写出第一作者后加“等”时,应该使用et al.,有的作者使用了etc.,这是不正确的。

正确:Wilcken et al. 25 havefound n(236U)/n(238U) ratios in the range 12 to 242×10-12and Steier et al. 27measured ratios in ore and yellow cake samples in the range6×10-11 to 6×10-12.

正确掌握了etc.与et al.的用法,编辑加工时就会修改自如了。

1.3 表示数量增减的表达

在进行结果的分析与讨论时,数量增减的表达很多,常用的中文表示有“增加(降低)了…”,“增加(降低)到…”,“增加(降低)了几倍(几个数量级)”,“…随…增加而增加(或降低)”等。在英文科技论文的写作中要准确地表达上述中文的意义,有时容易出现错误表达。

首先是用词错误。多数作者表示“升高/降低”均用“increase/decrease”。其实,根据名词的不同,“升高/降低”的用词是不同的。“increase/decrease”用于尺寸、距离、范围、规模、数量、价值、程度、力量、强度等的“升高/降低”。温度“升高/降低”,用“raise(rise,go up)/decrease(drop,lower)”。面积“增加/降低”,用“increase(enlarge,extend)/reduce”。“提高生活水平”,动词用“raise”,“生活水平的提高”名词用“rise”等。

正确:As a result of thesetwo phenomena the surface area increases with temperature and then reduces afterpassing through a maximum. ( 面积降低用“reduce”)还要注意的正确表达方式。表示“增加了…”用“increase by…”;“增加到…”用“increase to…”。

“增加了几个数量级” 用“increases …by several orders of magnitude”。“随…的增加”等用“withincreasing…”,“upon(as) … increase”,“upon increase of…”,“with the increased…”,“with…increase”等;但不用“with …increasing”。熟练掌握了这些正确表达,写好英文科技论文就得心应手了。

正确:As the volume isincreased by 16%, the low temperature Pauli-like contribution has beenrenormalized to higher values and transitions to a Curie-like behavior around400 K (see Fig. 3). The increase in the Pauli contribution is consistent withthe decrease in Z as the volume is increased, and this illustrates anenhancement of the electronic correlations.

正确:Moreover, the RU-surfacevalues obtained increase from 2.16 to 2.25Å upon addition ofwater, while U=Oyl bonds remain unchanged, 1.87Å (see Table 4).

正确:Preconcentrationimproves the analytical detection limit, increases the sensitivity by severalorders of magnitude, enhances the accuracy of the results, offers a high degreeof selectivity and facilitates calibration.(提高了几个数量级)

正确:A slight increase insorption is found with increasing temperature from 25?90 ℃, 168,170 where mainly the surface phosphate groups react upon atemperature increase.(随着温度的增加…)

正确:With increasingcomplexity of the models there is an increase in the number of adjustableparameters.

正确:In another study 388focused on montmorillonite in the presence of sodium counterions andcarbonatoligands, the main result was a significant decrease of uranyl sorptionupon increase of UO2CO3 species, while sodium sorptionremained constant.(随UO2CO3 species的增加…)

正确:With increasedcomputational power, Monte Carlo simulations of detector systems haveincreasingly become an alternative or complement to experimental efficiencycalibrations.

正确:Because the mean freepath increases as energy increases, an isotopic measurement will “see” farther into the item being measuredand hence sample more volume and mass at high energy than at low energy.(随某某的增加而增加……)

正确:This means thatrelative to low energies, large samples emit more high-energy gamma rays thanlow energy gamma rays and the relative efficiency tends to increase withincreasing energy more strongly than for small samples.

正确:Huy et al. 20 have alsopresented results indicating that the dead layer thickness can increase with time.

正确:This is the effectcausing the relative efficiency curves for large items to increase in magnitudeas one moves to higher energies (see Fig. II-1).(呈数量级地增长)

正确:Since Th(IV)-imprintedbeads have same size and shape cavity with Th(IV), the Kd value increase dramatically.(显著增加)

正确:The solubility isplotted in Figure 1 as a function of H-content, and it can be seen that thesolubility increases significantly with relatively small increase sin Hconcentration in the low hydrogen regime.(显著增加)

正确:Even though theelectrical field is generally considered to be fairly independent of the biasvoltage above the depletion level, there is a slight increase with increasingbias voltage 40.(轻微增加)

正确:Since the detectorstudied in this work was commissioned more than 20 years ago, and has been keptat room temperature for the major part of this time, it is reasonable tosuspect that some increase in dead layer thickness has taken place.(在某方面稍微的增加)

1.4 加“not”不缩写

在英文科技论文写作中,应避免使用加“not”缩写的错误表达,因为缩写是口语表达,如“it isn’t”,“itdoesn’t”,“we didn’t”,“it can’t”,“hasn’t”,“needn’t”等。正确的表达是not 与系动词不缩写。

正确:This assumption may nothold precisely because peak widths increase with energy, but it appears thatthe losses occurring from random summing do not materially affect isotopicratio measurements.

正确:On the other hand, therefinement of the 6thorder anisotropic size parameters did not significantly improvethe Rietveld refinement (the weighted profile factor Rwp before andafter transformation was respectively 0.1% and 0.5%) and furthermore did notlead to a physical representation of apparent size.

正确:If current assaymethods and procedures cannot satisfy those requirements, then development workcan be initiated. (不能用can not)

正确:If one is not concernedwith older samples, more isotope pairs exist, but MS analysis is more difficultto assess.

1.5 “形容词比较级+than that+介词”句式中漏掉“that+介词”

使用“形容词比较级+than”的句式,要注意前后比较对象的一致性,注意不要漏掉“that+介词”,同时要注意介词的正确搭配。

正确:Test calculations at Vδ revealed that AFI had about 4 mRy/atom lower energy than that of theAFⅡ ordering and in the following we therefore onlyfocus on the AFI configuration.

正确:Coaxial detectorresolution at 122 keV is typically 1.5 times larger than that of a planardetector.

正确:The relative-efficiencycurve for gamma rays from 241Am is different than that from plutonium.

正确:The plotted ratio showsthat the precision for Peff is better than that for 240Pu for every sample.

正确:However, each gram ofskin tissue irradiated by the plutonium absorbs about a hundred times more energy(0.015 erg per second) than that absorbed by each gram of body tissue from theiodine-131 (0.00013 erg per second).

正确:This estimated doseequivalent is 8 times larger than that to lung cells from radon (2,400millirem).

1.6 “范围”的表达

英文科技论文中,如何用英文准确表达“范围”,值得重视。

正确:However, in the case ofthe dry surface the U-Owater distances range from 2.57 to 2.65Å, whereas at thehydrated surface they cover a wider range from 2.43to 2.73Å caused byadditional interactions of theUO22+(H2O)3complex with surrounding water molecules.

错误:PC/FRAM is the onlyavailable isotopic analysis method using a coaxial detector in the energy rangefrom 120-300 keV. (将“range from 120-300 keV”修改为“range from 120 to 300 keV”)

正确:With a CdTedetector, one collects data in the125-414 keV range, just like a planar HPGe.

错误:For the important 235Uisotope, the average bias for all samples, over the enrichment range from 0.3%-93%is 0.25%. (将“range from 0.3%-93%”改为“range of 0.3%-93%”)

1.7 样品序列的表达

科技论文中关于样品的表述较多,涉及到样品序列时,有的作者会出现一些低级的错误,如“A 样品”,英文应用“simple A”,而不是中国式英语“A sample”。

错误:More {11-24} twins arefound in the CA sample sufferedcryrolling, comparing to the RA samplehaving the same initial texture while being rolled at a higher temperature.Fewer twins are found in the sheets B.(“CA sample”,“RA sample”表达错误;“sheets B”表达正确)

正确:These experimentsresulted in six new elements(113-118) and more than 50 previously unknown isotopes.In 2012, elements 114 and 116 were named flerovium (Fl) and livermorium (Lv),respectively. Elements113, 115, 117, and 118 are still awaiting independent confirmation.Recently one-atom-at-a-time gasphase volatility studies placed element 112,copernicium(Cn), as a d-metal in group 12 in the Periodic Table, which is inagreement with theoretical predictions.

1.8 “in this paper”与“in this study”涉及的时态

一般倡导以论文导向为主的“in this paper”句型用一般现在时,以研究为导向的“in this study”句型用一般过去时。但是我们在自建的专业权威英文期刊论文语料库中检索与“in this paper”,“in this study”有关使用的时态时发现,对二者的时态并没有严格的区分。不过描述实验研究方法,多用一般过去时,描述研究结果时多用一般现在时。以下是从专业权威英文期刊检索的例句,值得借鉴。

正确:To confirm thissuggestion, further systematic and detailed research work was carried out inthis study.

In this paper, the results of the phasetransformation phenomena observed in δ-stabilised Pu-G ” a alloys through thermal cycling treatments from both studies are reported.

正确:A DU-10 wt.% Mo(nominal) alloy was investigated, referred to in this paper as DU-10Mo.

正确:The dashed verticalline indicates the target condition used to define weapon-grade plutonium(93.8wt% 239Pu) in this paper.

正确:Together with the U-Pusystem assessed earlier by Kurata1, who used the same thermodynamic model forthe description of the liquid solution as used in this study, the Th-U andTh-Pu metallic systems are studied in this paper in view of a completeassessment of the ternary Th-U-Pu phase diagram which is calculated in thisstudy as well and which is the basis for further assessment of the Th-U-Pu-Osystem.

正确:Several methods oftensile elongation were captured in this study.

正确:Indium was chosenbecause its liquidus temperature (156.6℃) is closeto the temperature range of interest in this study.

正确:Cerium dioxide (CeO2)is used as a surrogatein this study because it has very similar materialproperties.

正确:Results from DLS willbe presented in this paper.

正确:The values calculatedin this study are in close agreement with these predictions, revealing the samecritical temperature with immiscible region ranging from 49.4 to 92.4 mol % U.

正确:As mentioned throughout the text the calculated Th-Pu binary phase diagram assessed by Wang et al.

3 has not been shown in their study, but the authors showone isothermal plot of the Th-U-Pu system at 1273K. For comparison the sameisothermal phase diagram has been calculated in this study and is shown in Fig.9.

2 总结

文中总结了一些常见短句的正确表达,对初学英文写作的作者有一定的借鉴作用。英文句子的主语与谓语的单复数表达应一致;表示事例列举时的“等”用etc.,且etc.不与and 连用,不用and so on 表示“等”,表示人物列举时的“等”用et al.表示;表示数量增减时,容易出现“ …increase/decrease with+ 名词+increasing/decreasing”的错误表达,正确的表达是“…increase/decrease with increasing/decreasing+ 名词”,关于数量增减程度的表达有多种方式,根据具体情况可灵活运用;表示否定的“not”,不能采用not与系动词的缩写形式,因为缩写形式用于口语表达,科技论文中的正确表达是is not,are not,cannot(不用can not),did not,hasnot,need not 等;注意不要漏掉“形容词比较级+thanthat+介词”句式中的“that+介词”,同时注意介词的正确搭配;表示“20-40 的范围”用range of 20-40 或range from 20 to 40,错误的表达是range from 20-40;样品序列的正确表示是simple A,而不是A sample;关于in this paper 及 in this study,in this paper 一般用一般现在时,in this study 一般用一般过去时,但也有例外,结合具体的语义来确定,描述方法用一般过去时,描述结果用一般现在时。正确使用这些常见短句的句法与语法表达,对提高英文科技论文的写作质量至关重要。

3 建议

​科技论文的结构一般包括摘要、引言、材料与方法、结果与讨论、结论部分,每一部分的写作除了上述常见短句的正确表达外,还需要注重时态与语态的正确运用。如在结果与讨论中,描述本文的结果一般用一般现在时、被动语态,引用他人的研究成果时,一般用一般过去时、被动语态。主动语态在摘要的写作中也用得越来越多。英文科技论文涉及的专业词汇量大,语法与句法知识点多,写好一篇语言精练、表达准确的科技论文并非易事。建议作者建立自己本专业的语料库,至少阅读 300 篇英文原文,精读 50 篇,从中积累专业词汇,谙熟专业论文写作的习惯表达;同时,建议作者平时就注重用英文写开题报告,用英文描述、记录实验过程与结果,实验结束时将各部分内容有机地融合,就容易形成一篇优秀的英文科研论文。