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SCI论文英文标点符号要如何使用?

SCI论文英文标点符号要如何使用?

  标点符号的正确使用对于英文SCI论文意义的有效表达和文字表达同样重要,而这一点似乎没有引起我们许多作者的足够重视。他们觉得英文中的标点符号不那么复杂,不用那么考究。所以,在他们论文的英文初稿中,经常出现英文标点符号使用不准确的问题,影响了意义的确切表达。我们并不打算将所有英文标点符号的用法介绍一遍——这没有必要,仅提出一些大家比较容易疏忽的问题,或者确实因为英汉语言差别造成的英文标点符号使用问题,希望读者朋友在自己的SCI论文英文写作中引起足够的注意。

  逗号的使用

  逗号(,)的使用主要有以下问题,首先是字体问题。按照常理,写英文应该用英文标点符号,可是我们在修改研究生英文科技论文时,总是能发现英文文本里的逗号是汉字格式的。这可能是因为作者在电子文本写作处于中文状态下输入了逗号。所以,应当注意在“Times New Roman”或其他西文字体状态下使用标点符号。这一点,要根据我们打算SCI投稿的杂志社要求的字体而定。

  第二,在主从复合句中,当从句(主要是状语从句)在句首的时候,一般要用逗号隔开。比如:

  例1.If the duration was shorter than 40 min, the dissolving of

  carotenoids would not reach equilibriumwith part of carotenoids

  remaining in R. sphaeroides.

  例 2. When two leaves fully developed threeweeks later, they were used for experiment.

  第三,一些在上下文中起衔接作用的副词往往在引起下文的句子之首,这时一般要用逗号将这个副词与下一句子隔开。例如,SCI论文中十分常用的“however”和“therefore”在下例中的情况:

  例 3. However, mostof the carotenoids sold in the market are synthetically derived and cannot meetconsumers' desire for natural carotenoids.

  例4. Therefore, carefulevaluation of potential genes for use as controls is needed for each type of exposure andexperimental model.

  第四,英语句子中的三个(含)以上的并列成分,最后两个之间常用“and”连接,前面的并列成分之间一般用逗号隔开。如下例中下划线部分:

  例5. DSBs are highly toxic lesions that,if not repaired or repaired

  incorrectly, cancause cell death, mutations and chromosomal

  translocations.

  但是,当某个并列成分内部有逗号或其他标点符号时,所有并列成分之间

  的逗号只好升格为分号。如下例:

  例6. Axis labels are as follows: Ho: 0 g/mL PHA; H0.5: 0.5g/mL

  PHA; H1: 1g/mLPHA;M0:0ng/mLPMA; M10: 10ng/mLPMA;

  M50: 50 ng/mL PMA.

  上例是一幅图下方的说明,作者在最后两个并列成分之间没有用“and”,而

  是用分号问隔。

  另一种很重要的情况是,如果最后一个并列成分带有修饰语,如名词后的定语从句,这时要在最后两个并列成分之间的“and”之前再加逗号,表示最后面的定语从句与前面的并列成分没有关系。如例5改写成下例(下划线部分):

  例 7. DSBs are highly toxic lesions that, if not repaired or repaired

  incorrectly, cancause cell death, mutations, and chromosomal

  translocations that can lead to cancer.

  第五,非限制定语从句要用逗号与所修饰的先行词或句子隔开,如果该从句是嵌在主句内部的,还必须在从句末尾加一逗号,使从句与主句分开。非限制定语从句使用的关系代词是“which”。本科生和研究生一般都熟悉英语定语从句,知道英语定语从句分限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。前者表示定语从句的意义与被修饰的先行词或句子紧密联系,所以在形式上不可分开;后者表示从句的意义对于被修饰的先行词或句子不是必需的,删去从句,主句仍然意义完整。例8和例9中的定语从句为限制性从句,例10和例11中的从句为非限制性从句。

  例8. These cells were subsequentlyscreened manually to exclude those that did not meet stringent requirements (i.e. poor staining, out of focus, or oddly shaped).

  例9. Partitioning of carbohydrates intoleaf, non-millable top, caneand root components of the crop usestemperature related functions which differ for different stages of cropdevelopment.

  例10. Thus, proteinssuch as WRN, which play a role in DSB repair and the prevention of genomic instability, would be expected to play a role in the resistance to benzene toxicity in manycell types.

  例11. Strong fluorescence could be observedin the cytoplasm by indirect immunofluorescence assay (Fig. 3), which also indicated that the PK-15/C-SN cell line was stable.

  相比之下,我们发现,非限制定语从句在SCI论文中的使用频率较高。这说明,非限制定语从句对于其所修饰的先行词或句子还是具有一定的解释意义的,使得作者的意思表达更加全面。这里需要特别提醒的是,当非限制性定语从句修饰前面整个句子时,一定要用逗号将从句与主句隔开,否则很容易因为从句的位置紧靠某个名词而引起误解。

  例11 就是从一位博士生的论文中发现并修改过的句子。作者原来没有用逗号将从句与主句隔开,使人误以为这个“which”从句是修饰“indirect immunofluorescence assay”的。

SCI论文

  分号的使用

  在英语书面语表达过程中,当一个独立句结束后,或者是作者觉得言犹未尽,或者考虑到读者可能感觉还需要对该独立句做点解释,需要再来一句以表达作者的意思或给读者释疑,但是这补上的一句话与前面的独立句之间的语意和结构关系还没有紧密到必须用某个连接词明示的地步,这时就需要用分号表示这一较松散的关系。

  换言之,当两个独立的句子在一起构成一个大句子,它们之间按照语意关系似乎可以用“and”“but”“for”“or”“nor”等连接词,但又不用的时候,就用分号来表示这些关系。其中表示“and”和“for”语意关系的句子在SCI论文英语表达中最为常见。如分号在例12中表达“and”之义,在例13中表达“for”之义:

  例12. LPS pretreatment for a 14-day periodled to a stable state of endotoxic tolerance accompanied by adecrease of TLR2 protein; TLR2 expression did not respond to the secondLPS challenge in the Et mice.

  例13. TLR2 protein increased in the Co groupwithin 20 h of the LPS treatment; thesemice had not been pretreated with LPS.

  分号在SCI论文中使用频率最高的情形是:两个独立句中间插入了副词性词或短语,引起后一个独立句,同时表示两个独立句之间的某种语意关系,这时,在第一个独立句末应使用分号。这样做,至少是因为插入的副词性词语需要用逗号与其所引起的独立句分开,因此前面必须用分号表示两个独立句之间的关系。

  这些副词性的词和短语有“consequently""furthermore""however""in fact " "moreover " "nevertheless " " therefore " " for example " " incontrast " " that is "等。

  例14. It is well known that the highest stability of these compounds is achieved in an acidic medium; however, they may undergo denatura lization when they are extracted from a naturalsource.

  例15. Following the implications deduced fromthe literature, we expect both the frequency and magnitude of landreal locations to have an adverse impact upon tenure security;that is,the more frequently land is reallocated and the more thorough suchreal locations are, the greater tenure insecurity is.

  例16. It is well-known that nitrogen forms ininorganic fertilizers may affect soil pH; for example, ammonium nitrification may cause soil acidification, whereas nitrate uptake may have the opposite effect.

  例17. Intraspecific variations have beendescribed in the RAPD both in bacteria and fungi; therefore, this technique is of great use inbiodiversity studies, but at anintra-specific level.

  例18. These membranes are distinct from thebrush border membrane; in fact, in the ratcolon TNAP is more enriched in the SLP than in the brush border .

  分号在英文句中的另一个用途在上一小节“逗号的使用”中已经提到,即并列的词语中只要其中一个或一个以上的词语中有逗号了,并列成分之问本来使用的逗号就要升格为分号。这些并列成分当然还包括并列小句。如下面这个例子:

  例19. In the above equation, x1, x2 and x3 are input variables (viz., pressure, temperature and pressure holding time); Bo is aconstant; B1, B2 , and B3 are linear coefficients; B12, B13, and B23 are cross-product coefficients; B11, B22, B33 are quadratic coefficients.

  当然,如果两个并列句中引导后一个并列句的词语是一个不独立使用的、与被引导的小句粘连的连接词,那么并列句之间的逗号就不能升格。

  这类连接词有“but”“though”“while”“whereas”等,如:

  例 20. Most yields of ginkgo seeds are in China, but they are not made full use.

  例21. Acetylation of p53 at Lys373 inducescell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereasacetylation of p53 at Lys382 induces only cell cycle arrest.

  例22. There are maybe other mechanisms responsible for increasing solubility of Cu in soil, although  the plant accumulation experiment demonstrated that MS6 had significant effect on facilitating Cuaccumulation in roots and shoots.

  按照英语语法,这时的两个小句之间更多的已经不是并列关系,而是主从句关系了。如例22中“although”引导的小句就是一个让步状语从句。