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由于摘要的英文表达要求用词简明、层次清楚,因此掌握一些特定的规范表达,甚至建立一个适合自己需要的“ 句型库”(stock phrases),对于摘要的撰写是很有帮助的。本文所选取的例句均源于SCI 收录的1992 ~ 2002 年间发表、并在同期具较高被引频次论文( 前100 位)[28]的摘要( 例句的选取时偏重于第一人称和主动语态)。

1.1 引言部分:

(1)回顾研究背景,常用词汇有:review,summarize,present,outline,describe 等。例如:We review evidence for this view of addiction and discuss its implications for understanding the psychology andneurobiology of addiction.[Brain Research Reviews,1993,18(3):247 - 291]This paper outlines some of the basic methods andstrategies and discusses some related theoretical and practical issues.[Annals of Statistics,1994,22(4):1701 - 1728]

(2 )阐明写作或研究目的,常用词汇有:purpose,attempt,aim 等;另外还可以用动词不定式充当目的状语来表达。例如:We attempt to recover a function of unknown smoothnessfrom noisy sampled data. [ Journal of the American StatisticalAssociation,1995,90(432):1200 - 1224]To investigate the mechanism of Bcl-2 ˊ s effect, weexamined whether Bcl-2 interacted with other proteins. [ Cell,1993,74(4):609 - 619]

(3)介绍论文的重点内容或研究范围,常用的词汇有:study,present,include,focus,emphasize,emphasis,attention等。Here we study the dependence of apoptosis on p53 expression in cells from the thymus cortex.[Nature,1993,362

(6423):849 - 852]This article includes a brief review of the physics underlying HERWIG,followed by a description of the program itself. [Computer Physics Communications,1992,67( 3 ):465 - 508]


1. 2 方法部分

(1)介绍研究或试验过程,常用词汇有:test,study,investigate,examine,experiment,discuss,consider,analyze,analysis 等。We use N-body simulations to investigate the structure of dark halos in the standard cold dark matter cosmogony.[Astrophysical Journal,1996,462(2):563 - 575]We present an analysis of atmospheric neutrino data from a 33. 0 kton yr( 535-day ) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. [ Physical Review Letters,1998,81( 8 ):1562 -1567]

(2 )说明研究或试验方法,常用词汇有:measure,estimate,calculate 等。

We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources ( NVOC ).[Journal of Geophysical Research - Atomspheres,1995,100(D5):8873 - 8892]This study presents estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 14 DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders from the National Comorbidity Survey,[Archives of General Psychiatry,1994,51(1):8 - 19]

(3)介绍应用、用途,常用词汇有:use,apply,application等。Our program uses a maximum likelihood approach and is based on version 3. 3 of Felsensteinˊs dnaml program. Computer Applications in the Biosciences,1994,10(1):41 - 48

As an application,we implement a compact image coding algorithm that selects important edges and compresses the image data by factors over 30. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence,1992,14(7):710 - 732

1. 3 结果部分

(1)展示研究结果,常用词汇有:show,result,present 等。We show this cell death to be dependent upon expression of c-myc protein and to occur by apoptosis.[Cell,1992,69(1):119 - 128]Our results suggest a widespread role for the nitric oxidecyclic guanosine monophosphate system in the nervous system.[Neuroscience,1992,46(4):755 - 784]

(2 )介绍结论,常用词汇有:summary, introduce,conclude 等。We introduce a procedure,SureShrink,that suppresses noise by thresholding the empirical wavelet coefficients.[Journal of the American Statistical Association,1995,90(432):1200- 1224]By means of informal mathematical arguments,simulations and a series of worked examples,we conclude that PQL is of ractical value for approximate inference on parameters and realizations of random effects in the hierarchical model.[Journal of the American Statistical Association,1993,88(421):9 -25]

1. 4 讨论部分

(1)陈述论文的论点和作者的观点,常用词汇有:suggest,report,present,explain,expect,describe 等。

(2)阐明论证。常用词汇有:support,provide,indicate,identify,find,demonstrate,confirm,clarify 等。

(3)推荐和建议,常用词汇有:suggest,suggestion,recommend,recommendation,propose,necessity,necessary,expect 等。

​总之,要清楚Abstracts是paper的一个缩写(miniature of whole paper),一定要简明扼要(less than 200 words,one paragraph),按照paper的顺序介绍主要研究对象(subject)、实验设计(design)、实验步骤(procedures)以及最后结果(results),这种介绍必须让非专业的人员能够(non-specialist)看懂。